Thank you for your inquiry. From what we gather from the question, you were asking about the risk of HIV transmission through fingering. From the information given, this scenario is determined to be No Risk (transmission of HIV is not possible in the given scenario).
The scenario mentioned above does not meet the three components of the transmission equation. In order for HIV to be transmitted a fluid such as blood or vaginal fluid needs to gain direct access to your bloodstream. If there was no active bleeding wound on your finger there would be no entry for transmission, therefore there is no risk. You also asked about the risk of HIV transmission through reusing the same pin to obtain a blood sample for an HIV test. From the information given, this scenario is determined to be No Risk (transmission of HIV is not possible in the given scenario). If you were not sharing the pin with anyone else, there would be no fluids containing HIV particles entering your bloodstream. However, I do not know how reusing the same pin would affect the validity of your HIV test, and to avoid the possibility of any bacterial infection I would recommend using a new sterile pin each time.
You also asked about a scenario of an HIV positive mother breastfeeding a child. This is considered to be High Risk (there is evidence of transmission through these activities and are the majority of cases of transmission). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a combination of medicines used to lower the viral load of HIV and therefore lower chance of transmission. The CDC recommends that "HIV positive mothers avoid breastfeeding and supplement with formula, regardless of ART or viral load" (1). In some parts of the world that are resource limited and do not have access to clean water or formula, it is recommended by the World Health Organization that they "breastfeed for the first 6 months of life, and continue for at least 12 months with the addition of complementary foods. These mothers should be given ART to reduce the risk of transmission through breastfeeding" (1).
It is important to note that breastfeeding from an HIV positive mother is considered a High Risk activity no matter who is being breastfed, whether it is a child or another individual. If you are continuously engaging in high risk activity there are biomedical approaches such as PrEP and PEP that help lower your risk of acquiring HIV. Refer to your physicians for further information.
Recommendation: For any High Risk activities, refer to a health care provider for HIV testing.
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1.) HIV Transmission Through Breastfeeding